La recuperación empieza antes de la Cirugía

Autores/as

  • Patricia López Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Clínica Quirúrgica, Ex Prof. Adj. Médica Cirujana
  • Eduardo Moreira Administración de los Servicios de Salud del Estado, Hospital Maciel, Unidad de Nutrición. Médico Intensivista
  • Estela Olano Sanatorio CASMU. Hospital Maciel, Unidad de Nutrición Especial, Ex Jefa. Médica Intensivista
  • Lourdes Silva Administración de los Servicios de Salud del Estado, Hospital Maciel, Unidad Nutrición. Licenciada en Enfermería

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29193/RMU.39.2.10

Palabras clave:

CIRUGÍA, PERIODO PERIOPERATORIO, ASISTENCIA POSOPERATORIA, RECUPERACIÓN MEJORADA POSTQUIRÚRGICA

Resumen

Un paciente que se somete a una cirugía mayor se enfrenta a un factor estresante importante. Dependiendo de la magnitud de la cirugía, la respuesta al estrés quirúrgico puede alterar los procesos metabólicos y la homeostasis. A pesar de cualquier complicación quirúrgica, se ha demostrado que las cirugías mayores reducen la capacidad fisiológica y funcional del individuo. Al mismo tiempo, la inactividad y el reposo en cama pueden inducir una rápida atrofia muscular. Estas consecuencias se asocian a perores resultados quirúrgicos. La pre-habilitación quirúrgica es un enfoque innovador en el campo de la medicina que busca mejorar los resultados de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía mediante la optimización de su estado físico y mental antes de la intervención quirúrgica. A diferencia de la rehabilitación, que se lleva a cabo después de la cirugía para ayudar en la recuperación, la pre-habilitación se realiza antes de la operación con el objetivo de preparar al paciente de manera integral. El objetivo principal de la pre-habilitación quirúrgica es minimizar los efectos negativos de la cirugía, acelerar la recuperación y mejorar la calidad de vida después de la intervención. Para lograr esto, se implementan diferentes intervenciones multidisciplinarias que abordan aspectos físicos, emocionales y nutricionales del paciente. En este artículo, exploramos el concepto de prehabilitación como una herramienta eficaz para mejorar los resultados de las intervenciones quirúrgicas. Discutimos diferentes estrategias y enfoques que pueden implementarse como parte de la prehabilitación quirúrgica, con el objetivo de minimizar complicaciones, acelerar la recuperación y mejorar la calidad de vida postoperatoria. Además, examinamos la evidencia actual disponible y resaltamos la necesidad de futuras investigaciones para validar y ampliar el conocimiento sobre esta prometedora área en la medicina perioperatoria.

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Publicado

2023-06-29

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1.
López P, Moreira E, Olano E, Silva L. La recuperación empieza antes de la Cirugía. Rev. Méd. Urug. [Internet]. 29 de junio de 2023 [citado 25 de junio de 2024];39(2):e501. Disponible en: https://revista.rmu.org.uy/index.php/rmu/article/view/1034

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