Tratamiento inhalatorio en la crisis asmática severa

Autores/as

  • Gustavo J. Rodrigo Hospital Central de las Fuerzas Armadas, Departamento de Emergencia
  • Carlos Rodrigo Asociación Española Primera de Socorros Mutuos, Centro de Tratamiento Intensivo

Palabras clave:

ASMA, ENFERMEDAD AGUDA, ESTADO ASMATICO, AEROSOLES, BETA AGONISTAS ADRENERGICOS, ANTAGONISTAS COLINERGICOS, CORTICOSTEROIDES, TERAPIA POR INHALACION DE OXIGENO

Resumen

Se realiza una revisión sobre el tratamiento inhalatorio de la crisis asmática. La inhaloterapia está ampliamente difundida en la práctica médica habitual, implicando importantes costos económicos. Sin embargo, se estima a nivel mundial que hay una administración inadecuada en un porcentaje importante, lo que resulta en fracasos terapéuticos y gastos innecesarios. Esto adquiere relevancia cuando se conoce el aumento de la mortalidad por asma en las últimas décadas y se detecta que tanto los pacientes como los médicos y paramédicos carecen mayoritariamente de los conocimientos básicos y habilidades para su adecuado manejo. Se establecen los objetivos de la inhaloterapia y se consideran sus aspectos fundamentales (físicos, generadores de aerosoles, farmacología). Se estudian y comparan los distintos sistemas de generación de aerosoles y también se analizan los diferentes fármacos inhalados. Se exponen con detalle los beta agonistas, anticolinérgicos y corticoides en sus formas inhaladas. También se presentan otros tratamientos inhalatorios no tradicionales como el sulfato de magnesio y una mezcla gaseosa heliox. En los distintos tópicos se recurre en lo posible a revisiones sistemáticas o metaanálisis para establecer preferencias o elegir tratamientos. Los autores proponen algunas estrategias terapéuticas avaladas en su experiencia, documentada en la bibliografía aportada.

Citas

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2003-05-30

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1.
Rodrigo GJ, Rodrigo C. Tratamiento inhalatorio en la crisis asmática severa. Rev. Méd. Urug. [Internet]. 30 de mayo de 2003 [citado 19 de mayo de 2024];19(1):14-26. Disponible en: https://revista.rmu.org.uy/index.php/rmu/article/view/952

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