Nutrición en las enfermedades inflamatorias del intestino

Una revisión

  • Eduardo Moreira ASSE, Hospital Maciel, Unidad de Nutrición e Insuficiencia Intestinal, Terapia Nutricional. Médico Intensivista
  • Ximena Rodríguez Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Hospital de Clínicas, Clínica de Gastroenterología, Ex - Asistente. Gastroenteróloga
  • Patricia López Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Hospital de Clínicas, Clínica Quirúrgica, Profesora Adjunta. Cirujana
  • Lourdes Silva ASSE, Hospital Maciel, Unidad de Nutrición e Insuficiencia Intestinal, Terapia Nutricional. Licenciada en enfermería
  • Estela Olano ASSE, Hospital Maciel, Unidad de Nutrición e Insuficiencia Intestinal, Coordinadora. Terapia Nutricional. Médico Intensivista
Palabras clave: ENFERMEDADES INFLAMATORIAS DEL INTESTINO, ESTADO NUTRICIONAL, DIETOTERAPIA

Resumen

Existe evidencia epidemiológica en humanos, a partir de estudios de cohortes de grandes poblaciones, de que la dieta ejerce una fuerte influencia en el desarrollo y curso de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII). Además, la mayoría de los tratamientos médicos basados en la evidencia para las EII están dirigidos a suprimir la respuesta inmunitaria y conllevan riesgos de efectos secundarios importantes. La evidencia actual ha demostrado varios factores dietéticos que probablemente protejan contra los brotes, como la fibra, el zinc y la vitamina D en ambas formas de EII y una alta proporción de Ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGPI) n -3 / n -6 en la dieta en la CU. Otros factores aumentan el riesgo de brotes, son los alimentos que contienen ácido mirístico, las carnes rojas y el azúcar. Esta revisión explorará las interacciones de la dieta y el sistema inmunológico en el contexto de la enfermedad de Crohn (EC) y la colitis ulcerosa (CU), centrándose en el papel de la dieta en la patogénesis, en particular la interacción con el sistema inmunológico del paciente. Al mismo tiempo se analizará el rol de la nutrición médica como intervención terapéutica.

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Publicado
2021-08-24
Cómo citar
1.
Moreira E, Rodríguez X, López P, Silva L, Olano E. Nutrición en las enfermedades inflamatorias del intestino. Rev. Méd. Urug. [Internet]. 24 de agosto de 2021 [citado 20 de septiembre de 2021];37(3):e37309. Disponible en: https://revista.rmu.org.uy/ojsrmu311/index.php/rmu/article/view/743
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