Fructosa, un factor clave modificable en la patogenia del síndrome metabólico, la esteatosis hepática y la obesidad

  • Alejandro Gugliucci Universidad Touro, California. Departamento de Investigación, Laboratorio de Glicación, Oxidación y Enfermedad
  • Reyna Rodríguez-Mortera Universidad Touro, California. Departamento de Investigación, Laboratorio de Glicación, Oxidación y Enfermedad
Palabras clave: FRUCTOSA, SÍNDROME METABÓLICO, HÍGADO GRASO, RESISTENCIA A LA INSULINA, OBESIDAD, LIPOGÉNESIS DE NOVO

Resumen

En esta revisión se resume el rol específico que el exceso de consumo de fructosa más allá de sus calorías puede tener en el desarrollo del síndrome metabólico, la esteatosis hepática no alcohólica y su asociación con la obesidad. Se desglosan los efectos de la fructosa (en comparación con la glucosa) en la esteatosis hepática, lo que genera la insulino-resistencia y la hipertrigliceridemia. Por su metabolismo hepático mayoritario y la falta de regulación, los flujos altos de fructosa consumen ATP generando ácido úrico, producen metabolitos tóxicos, como ceramidas y metilglioxal, y activan la síntesis de lípidos. Además, se analizan los efectos en el tejido adiposo, la activación del cortisol y las hormonas involucradas en el control de la saciedad, todas las cuales se ven afectadas por el consumo de fructosa. La insulino-resistencia hepática inicial se complica con insulino-resistencia sistémica, que genera leptino-resistencia y un ciclo de hiperfagia. Estos resultados subrayan la necesidad de intervenciones clínicas y educativas dentro de la población para regular o reducir el consumo de fructosa, especialmente en niños y adolescentes, sus principales consumidores.

Citas

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Publicado
2020-12-01
Cómo citar
1.
Gugliucci A, Rodríguez-Mortera R. Fructosa, un factor clave modificable en la patogenia del síndrome metabólico, la esteatosis hepática y la obesidad. Rev. Méd. Urug. [Internet]. 1 de diciembre de 2020 [citado 28 de enero de 2021];36(4):418-30. Disponible en: https://revista.rmu.org.uy/ojsrmu311/index.php/rmu/article/view/648
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