Cigarrillo electrónico y otros sistemas electrónicos de liberación de nicotina

revisión de evidencias sobre un tema controversial

  • Laura Llambí Uruguay, Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Hospital de Clínicas, Clínica Médica “A”, Unidad de Tabaquismo, Internista.
  • Diego Rodríguez Uruguay, Centro de Investigación para la Epidemia del Tabaquismo, Sociólogo.
  • Enrique Soto Uruguay, Ministerio de Salud Pública, Programa Nacional para el Control de Tabaco, Cardiólogo.
  • Carolina Parodi Uruguay, Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Hospital de Clínicas, Clínica Médica “A”, Unidad de Tabaquismo, Internista.
Palabras clave: CIGARRILLO ELECTRÓNICO, VAPEO, SISTEMAS ELECTRÓNICOS DE LIBERACIÓN DE NICOTINA, TABAQUISMO, CESE DEL HÁBITO DE FUMAR

Resumen

Introducción: los cigarrillos electrónicos (CE) son sistemas que liberan aerosol conteniendo nicotina y otras sustancias. Desde su aparición han generado una gran controversia en la comunidad científica dedicada al control de tabaco, existiendo evidencias que los posicionan como una alternativa de tratamiento para la cesación tabáquica y otros estudios que muestran sus daños a la salud, así como convertirlos en la puerta de entrada a los jóvenes a la adicción a nicotina.
Objetivo: recopilar evidencia disponible sobre CE con referencia a componentes, riesgos para la salud, cesación de tabaquismo, impacto poblacional y aspectos normativos y regulatorios.
Método: revisión narrativa. Se realizó búsqueda bibliográfica en bases PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Redalyc, SciELO, LiLACS, Dialnet, ScienceDirect, así como en documentos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, sociedades científicas, sitios web dedicados a consumidores y legislación nacional e internacional.
Resultados: se revisaron 130 documentos, de los cuales se toman los 63 más relevantes. Existen evidencias científicas sobre contenidos tóxicos y carcinógenos en líquidos y aerosoles de los CE, así como de daño a la salud cardiovascular y respiratoria. Se presentan estudios controversiales sobre su eficacia para dejar de fumar. Se presenta evidencia acerca de cómo los CE impactan negativamente en la iniciación de jóvenes al consumo y en la recaída de exfumadores. Se analiza la normativa nacional e internacional para regular los CE.
Conclusiones: los profesionales de la salud no deben aconsejar el uso de CE, dado que no son seguros y exponen a los consumidores y a la población en general de los efectos deletéreos directos e indirectos de los CE.

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Cómo citar
1.
Llambí L, Rodríguez D, Soto E, Parodi C. Cigarrillo electrónico y otros sistemas electrónicos de liberación de nicotina. Rev. Méd. Urug. [Internet]. 1 [citado 7 de julio de 2020];36(1):59-3. Disponible en: https://revista.rmu.org.uy/ojsrmu311/index.php/rmu/article/view/502
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