Trastornos respiratorios del sueño

Guías clínicas para el diagnóstico y tratamiento

  • José P Arcos Coordinador
  • Victorina López Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto del Tórax
  • Ana Musetti Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto del Tórax
  • Mónica Mamchur Sociedad de Tisiología y Enfermedades del Tórax del Uruguay
  • Martha Gutiérrez Sociedad de Tisiología y Enfermedades del Tórax del Uruguay
  • Nancy Otaño Asociación de Técnicos Neumocardiólogos del Uruguay
  • Ana Umpiérrez Asociación de Técnicos Neumocardiólogos del Uruguay
  • Lilián Chiappella Escuela Universitaria de Tecnología Médica
  • Rosana Frattini Escuela Universitaria de Tecnología Médica
  • Alicia Barros Escuela Universitaria de Tecnología Médica
  • Daniel Lorenzo Sociedad Uruguaya de Investigación del Sueño
  • Zulma Rodríguez Sociedad Uruguaya de Investigación del Sueño
  • Ana Graciela Buño Asociación Odontológica Uruguaya
  • Ernesto Irrazábal Sociedad Uruguaya de Endocrinología y Metabolismo
  • Gustavo Pereda Sociedad Uruguaya de Cardiología
  • Magdalena Penela Sociedad de Neurología del Uruguay
  • Manuel Baz Sociedad de Medicina Interna del Uruguay
  • Luis Piñeyro Universidad de la República, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto del Tórax. Director
  • Omar Burschtin Consultor USA
  • Joaquín Durán-Cantolla Consultor España
  • Daniel Pérez Chada Consultor Argentina
Palabras clave: TRASTORNOS RESPIRATORIOS, TRASTORNOS DEL SUEÑO-VIGILIA

Resumen

La medicina ha descubierto la importancia del sueño y las consecuencias de sus trastornos que pueden derivar en serias afecciones médicas y psiquiátricas que afectan a todas las personas que los padecen. El desarrollo de la medicina del sueño ha sido explosivo en los últimos años, si tenemos en cuenta que hace solo 60 años que se descubrió la fase del sueño REM (rapid eye movement) y 25 que se comenzó a tratar con CPAP (continuouos positive airway pressure) a las apneas obstructivas del sueño. Actualmente se pueden describir aproximadamente 90 tipos de trastornos del sueño, requiriendo cada uno medidas específicas. Este es un problema de salud que afecta a millones de personas. Siempre que el diagnóstico sea oportuno y adecuado, son posibles excelentes medidas terapéuticas.

Hay un alto porcentaje de pacientes portadores de estos trastornos del sueño que no han sido diagnosticados y esto representa un enorme costo para el sistema de salud, que debe hacerse cargo de las complicaciones derivadas de la falta de tratamiento (eventos cardiovasculares, accidentes de tránsito, ausentismo laboral).
Como queda de manifiesto en estas Guías Clínicas, los trastornos respiratorios del sueño (TRS) convocan a varias disciplinas médicas que deben integrar el equipo de diagnóstico y tratamiento (neurólogo, endocrinólogo, cardiólogo), ya que son muy diversos los abordajes y los perjuicios que se producen en el paciente individual.
En los últimos años se ha popularizado la difusión de guías de diagnóstico y tratamiento para la mayoría de las enfermedades. Las Guías Clínicas son recomendaciones dirigidas en general al médico no especialista y a pacientes, para la correcta toma de decisiones sobre las buenas prácticas clínicas en las diversas circunstancias que cada enfermedad puede presentar. Los clínicos, las autoridades sanitarias y los prestadores de salud consideran a las guías como instrumentos para hacer el diagnóstico y los tratamientos más eficaces, y para cerrar la brecha entre lo que hacen los clínicos y lo que la evidencia clínica avala.
Estas primeras Guías Clínicas uruguayas sobre los Trastornos Respiratorios del Sueño seguramente cumplirán con estos objetivos y como resultado tendrán el beneficio de reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad de nuestra población mejorando su calidad de vida relacionada a la salud.

Prof. Dr. Luis Piñeyro Director del Instituto del Tórax

Citas

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Hipoventilación alveolar progresiva en los trastornos neuro-músculo-esqueléticos
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Publicado
2012-12-31
Cómo citar
1.
Arcos JP, López V, Musetti A, Mamchur M, Gutiérrez M, Otaño N, Umpiérrez A, Chiappella L, Frattini R, Barros A, Lorenzo D, Rodríguez Z, Buño AG, Irrazábal E, Pereda G, Penela M, Baz M, Piñeyro L, Burschtin O, Durán-Cantolla J, Pérez Chada D. Trastornos respiratorios del sueño. Rev. Méd. Urug. [Internet]. 31 de diciembre de 2012 [citado 15 de agosto de 2020];28(4):274-08. Disponible en: http://revista.rmu.org.uy/ojsrmu311/index.php/rmu/article/view/328